Adobe Acrobat

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Adobe Acrobat is a family of application software and Web services developed by Adobe Inc. to view, create, manipulate, print and manage files in Portable Document Format (PDF).[1]

The family comprises Acrobat Reader (formerly Reader), Acrobat (formerly Exchange) and The basic Acrobat Reader, available for several desktop and mobile platforms, is freeware; it supports viewing, printing and annotating of PDF files.[2] Additional, "Premium", services are available for reader on paid subscription. The commercial proprietary Acrobat, available for Microsoft Windows and macOS only, can also create, edit, convert, digitally sign, encrypt, export and publish PDF files. complements the family with a variety of enterprise content management and file hosting services.


Adobe Acrobat came to being in 1993 and had to compete with other products and proprietary formats that aimed to create digital documents:

Adobe allows third parties to develop Acrobat plug-ins, which can add extra functions to the Acrobat program.

Acrobat XI
Reader XI
Distiller XI
Old logos of Acrobat apps and services

Adobe has renamed the Acrobat products several times, in addition to merging, splitting and discontinuing them. Initially, the offered products were called Acrobat Reader, Acrobat Exchange and Acrobat Distiller. "Acrobat Exchange" soon became "Acrobat". Over time, "Acrobat Reader" became "Reader". Between versions 3 and 5, Acrobat did not have several editions. In 1999, the service came to being and introduced several web services whose names started with "Acrobat", but eventually, "" was downgraded from the name of the family of services, to that of one those service.

By 1 April 2015, the Acrobat family consisted of:[6]

  • Acrobat XI Pro (for Windows and macOS)
  • Acrobat XI Standard (for Windows only)
  • Reader XI (for Windows, macOS, Android and iOS)
  • FormsCentral (web service with desktop client)
  • EchoSign (web service)
  • (web service)
  • PDF Pack (web service)
  • Send (web service)

Unlike most other Adobe products, such as members of Adobe Creative Suite family, the Acrobat products do not have icons that display two letters on a colored rectangle.

Document Cloud

In April 2015, Adobe introduced the "Document Cloud" branding (alongside its Creative Cloud) to signify its adoption of the cloud storage and the software as a service model. Apps under this branding received a "DC" suffix. In addition, "Reader" was renamed back to "Acrobat Reader".[7][8] Following the introduction of Document Cloud, were discontinued as their features were integrated into the desktop and mobile apps.

The UI had major changes with the introduction of Acrobat DC in 2015, which supports Windows 7 and later, and OS X 10.9 and later. Version numbers are now identified by the last two digits of the year of major release, and the month and year is specified; the previous version was 12, but examples of the DC (Document Cloud) Acrobat product family versions are DC June 2016, version 15.016.20045, released 2 June 2016 and DC Classic January 2016, version 15.006.30119, released 12 January 2016.[9] From DC 2015 the Acrobat family is available in two tracks, the original track, now named Classic, and the Continuous track.[10] Updates for the Classic track are released quarterly, and do not include new features, whereas updates for the Continuous track are issued more frequently, and implemented silently and automatically.[11]

The last pre-DC version, Acrobat XI, was updated to 11.0.23 version (and this was the final release[12]) on November 14, 2017,[13] support for which ended on October 15, 2017.[14]

テンプレート:As of, the main members of the Acrobat family include:[15]

  • Acrobat Pro DC (for Windows and macOS)
  • Acrobat Standard DC (for Windows only)
  • Acrobat Reader DC (for Windows, macOS, Android, iOS and Windows Phone)
  • Fill & Sign (for Android or iOS)
  • Sign (for Android or iOS)
  • Scan (for Android or iOS)
  • Document Cloud (web service with desktop clients)

Internationalization and localization

Language availability

Adobe Acrobat is available in the following languages: Arabic, Chinese Simplified, Chinese Traditional, Czech, Danish, Dutch, English, Finnish, French, German, Greek, Hebrew, Hungarian, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Norwegian, Polish, Portuguese, Romanian, Russian, Spanish, Swedish, Turkish and Ukrainian. Arabic and Hebrew versions are available from WinSoft International,[16] Adobe Systems' internationalization and localization partner.

Specific features for Arabic and Hebrew languages

The Arabic and Hebrew versions are developed specifically for these languages, which are normally written right-to-left. These versions include special TouchUp properties to manage digits, ligatures option and paragraph direction in right-to-left Middle Eastern scripts such as Arabic, Hebrew, and Persian, as well as standard left-to-right Indian scripts such as Devanagari and Gujarati. The Web Capture feature can convert single web pages or entire web sites into PDF files, while preserving the content's original text encoding. Acrobat can also copy Arabic and Hebrew text to the system clipboard in its original encoding; if the target application is also compatible with the text encoding, then the text will appear in the correct script.


A comprehensive list of security bulletins for most Adobe products and related versions is published on their Security bulletins and advisories page and in other related venues.[17][18] In particular, the detailed history of security updates for all versions of Adobe Acrobat has been made public.[19]

From Version 3.02 onwards, Acrobat Reader has included support for JavaScript. This functionality allows a PDF document creator to include code which executes when the document is read. Malicious PDF files that attempt to attack security vulnerabilities can be attached to links on web pages or distributed as email attachments. While JavaScript is designed without direct access to the file system to make it "safe", vulnerabilities have been reported for abuses such as distributing malicious code by Acrobat programs.[20] Adobe applications had already become the most popular client-software targets for attackers during the last quarter of 2009.[21] McAfee predicted that Adobe software, especially Reader and Flash, would be the primary target for software attacks in the year 2010.[22]

September 2006 warning

On September 13, 2006, David Kierznowski provided sample PDF files illustrating JavaScript vulnerabilities. Since at least version 6, JavaScript can be disabled using the preferences menu[23] and embedded URLs that are launched are intercepted by a security warning dialog box to either allow or block the website from activating.[24]

February 2009 warning

On February 19, 2009, Adobe released a Security Bulletin announcing JavaScript vulnerabilities in Adobe Reader and Acrobat versions 9 and earlier.[25] As a workaround for this issue, US-CERT recommended disabling JavaScript in the affected Adobe products, canceling integration with Windows shell and web browsers (while carrying out an extended version of de-integration for Internet Explorer), deactivating Adobe indexing services and avoiding all PDF files from external sources.[26]

February 2013 warning

Adobe has identified critical vulnerabilities in Adobe Reader and Acrobat XI (11.0.01 and earlier) for Windows and Macintosh, 9.5.3 and earlier 9.x versions. These vulnerabilities could cause the application to crash and potentially allow an attacker to take control of the affected system. There have been reports of these vulnerabilities being exploited to trick Windows users into clicking on a malicious PDF file delivered in an email message. Adobe recommended users update their product installations.[27]

January 2016 warning

Adobe has released security updates for Adobe Acrobat and Reader for Windows and Macintosh. These updates address critical vulnerabilities that could potentially allow an attacker to take control of the affected system.[28][29]

See also


  1. Adobe Acrobat family” (2008年). 2008年1月19日時点のオリジナルよりアーカイブ。. 19 January 2008閲覧.
  2. Adobe Reader” (2008年). 2008年1月18日時点のオリジナルよりアーカイブ。. 19 January 2008閲覧.
  3. Borzo, Jeanette (14 June 1993). “Paperless: Tools resurrect hope for paperless office concept”. InfoWorld 15 (24). ISSN 0199-6649. 
  4. Eckerson, Wayne (26 July 1993). “Farallon gives Adobe Acrobat run for money”. Network World (International Data Group) 10 (30): 86. ISSN 0887-7661. 
  5. Jarrin, Christopher (22 July 1996). “Reading what you sow”. InfoWorld 18 (30): 66. ISSN 0199-6649. 
  6. Acrobat XI Pro FAQ”. Adobe Systems. 2015年4月1日時点のオリジナルよりアーカイブ。 Template:Cite webの呼び出しエラー:引数 accessdate は必須です。
  7. Heller, Martin (2015年4月9日). “Review: Adobe Acrobat polishes its act”. InfoWorld. . 28 March 2016閲覧. 
  8. Frank, Blair Hanley (2015年10月13日). “Adobe teams up with Dropbox as part of Document Cloud upgrades”. IDG News Service. . 28 March 2016閲覧. 
  9. Release Notes - Acrobat, Reader”. Acrobat Help. Adobe Systems. Template:Cite webの呼び出しエラー:引数 accessdate は必須です。
  10. Document Cloud Product Tracks — Enterprise Administration Guide”. . 27 June 2016閲覧.
  12. Adobe Security Bulletin” (英語). . 2017閲覧.
  13. 11.0.23 Planned update, November 14, 2017 — Acrobat and Adobe Reader Release Notes”. . 2017閲覧.
  14. Adobe Support Policies: Supported Product Versions”. Adobe (2016年). . 20 October 2016閲覧.
  15. Adobe Acrobat DC FAQ”. Adobe Systems. . 20 August 2018閲覧.
  16. Adobe Acrobat Professional software – Communicate and collaborate with the essential PDF solution, enhanced features for Central and East European and Middle Eastern users”. 2010年8月31日時点のオリジナルよりアーカイブ。. 4 December 2010閲覧.
  17. Security Bulletins and Advisories”. Adobe Systems. Template:Cite webの呼び出しエラー:引数 accessdate は必須です。
  18. Adobe PDF Security Issues, Acrobat Vulnerabilities, PDF Cracks”. Locklizard. Template:Cite webの呼び出しエラー:引数 accessdate は必須です。
  19. Security Bulletins and Advisories – Adobe Acrobat”. Adobe Systems. Template:Cite webの呼び出しエラー:引数 accessdate は必須です。
  20. Brockmeier, Joe (2005年3月30日). “Unexpected features in Acrobat 7”. Eklektix. . 20 February 2009閲覧.
  21. McAfee Threats Report: Fourth Quarter 2009”. McAfee Avert Labs. p. 16 (2010年2月). 2010年2月15日時点のオリジナルよりアーカイブ。. 9 May 2010閲覧.
  22. 2010 Threat Predictions”. McAfee Labs. p. 2 (2009年12月). 2016年10月5日時点のオリジナルよりアーカイブ。. 9 May 2010閲覧.
  23. Naraine, Ryan (2009年4月28日). “Adobe: Turn off JavaScript in PDF Reader”. ZDNet. CBS Interactive. Template:Cite webの呼び出しエラー:引数 accessdate は必須です。
  24. Naraine, Ryan (2006年9月15日). “Hacker Discovers Adobe PDF Back Doors”. eWeek. Ziff Davis Enterprise Holdings Inc. . 5 August 2011閲覧. “David Kierznowski, a penetration testing expert specializing in Web application testing, has released proof-of-concept code and rigged PDF files to demonstrate how the Adobe Reader program could be used to initiate attacks without any user action.”
  25. Security Updates available for Adobe Reader and Acrobat versions 9 and earlier”. Adobe Systems (2009年2月19日). . 11 August 2013閲覧.
  26. Vulnerability Note VU#905281”. US-CERT (2009年2月20日). 2009年2月23日時点のオリジナルよりアーカイブ。. 20 February 2009閲覧.
  27. Security Advisory for Adobe Reader and Acrobat”. Adobe Systems. Template:Cite webの呼び出しエラー:引数 accessdate は必須です。
  28. Security Advisory for Adobe Reader and Acrobat”. Adobe Systems. Template:Cite webの呼び出しエラー:引数 accessdate は必須です。
  29. Adobe Releases Security Updates for Acrobat, Reader, and Digital Editions”. United States Computer Emergency Readiness Team. Template:Cite webの呼び出しエラー:引数 accessdate は必須です。

External links

テンプレート:PDF readers テンプレート:AdobeCS テンプレート:Adobe eLearning Suite テンプレート:Adobe Technical Communication Suite